Just a moment while we sign you in to your Goodreads account. Security in infancy, childhood and adulthood: A move to the level of representation. (2006). In M. Yogman & T. B. Brazelton (Eds. Frightening maternal behavior linking unresolved loss and disorganized infant attachment, Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 67, 54 – 63. (1999). 107–138). Procedures for identifying infants as disorganized/disoriented during the Ainsworth Strange Situation. (2008).  Behaviors associated with disorganization have been found to undergo transformation from the age of 2 and typically develop into various forms of well-organised controlling behavior toward the parent. In J. Cassidy & P.R. Steele, H., Steele, M., & Fonagy, P. (1996). She is the developer of the Adult attachment interview. This book is not yet featured on Listopia. in divorce proceedings) have also been found to predict infant disorganized attachment behavior. ), Clinical applications of the Adult Attachment Interview (pp. Mary Main’s research is very clear on this. Attachment in the Preschool Years (pp.161-181), Chicago: University of Chicago Press, p.163. " A parent who frightens the child with abusive behavior, or who themselves is frightened when the child seeks comfort because of past trauma, could be supposed to cause such a paradox for an infant. Today, the technique of Ainsworth's Strange Situation is commonly used in psychiatry and psychology to examine the attachment pattern between mother and a child. Family Court Review, 49, 426-463. Discovery of a new, insecure-disorganized/disoriented attachment pattern. New York: McGraw-Hill. The book also examines advances in the biology and neuroscience of attachment. George, S., & Solomon, J. Hesse, E. (1996) Discourse, memory, and the Adult Attachment Interview: A note with emphasis on the emerging Cannot Classify category, Infant Mental Health Journal, 17(1), 4-11; Hesse, E., & Main, M. (2002). This includes the capacity to elaborate a theory of the other’s mind, decentralising, the ability to reflect on one’s mental states, and the establishment of a sense of mastery and personal efficacy. Very extensive nonmaternal care predicts mother–infant attachment disorganization, Development & Psychopathology, 27(3): 649-661, Main, M., Hesse, E., & Hesse, S. (2011). This account has been supported by research findings which show that a range of factors can predict this behavior besides abuse and neglect. The book also examines advances in the biology and neuroscience of attachment. Introduction  The association has even been found in research where the AAI has been conducted before the birth of the first child. 95–124). Main, M. (1977). Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 2, 640–643. Since 1986, when disorganized attachment was first defined by Mary Main and Judith Solomon, a great deal of interest has been shown in this addition to the standard Ainsworth classification system. *p.1091: “The same average parent-to-child, secure/insecure match of 75% holds even when the … John Bowlby originally proposed the concept of the 'attachment behavioral system', an orientation and set of dispositions which evolved because it provided protection from predation and other risks to survival. The emergence of the disorganized/disoriented (D) attachment classification, 1979-1982, History of Psychology 18(1): 32–46. For example, secure-autonomous parents have been found to be more responsive to their infants than parents with a dismissing or preoccupied attachment state of mind. In M.T. The book also examines advances in the biology and neuroscience of attachment. Cannot classify interviews are rare in samples drawn from low-risk contexts. New York: Guilford Press. Greenberg, D. Cicchetti & E.M. Cummings (Eds. The Circle of Security intervention provides group-based psychotherapy and attachment theory-based education to parents. In research conducted in the early 1980s with parents from a Berkeley sample, Main and colleagues found that transcribed responses to the AAI could be placed into one of three categories, named 'secure-autonomous', 'dismissing' and 'preoccupied'. 25–51), NY: Guilford Press. The organized categories of infant, child, and adult attachment: Flexible vs. inflexible attention under attachment-related stress, Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 48(4), 1055-1096, p.1094. This work has been described as 'revolutionary' and Main has been described as having 'unprecedented resonance and influence' in the field of psychology.. Emotion Socialization as a Framework for Understanding the Development of Disorganized Attachment, Social Development, 13(3) 437-467; Lyons-Ruth, K. (2007). Following completion of her dissertation, Main took up a faculty position in the Department of Psychology at the University of California, Berkeley. Coming to Los Angeles: Dr. Dan Siegel with Drs. A collaborator of Bowlby's, Mary Ainsworth, developed a standardised laboratory observation procedure named the 'Strange Situation' in which an infant would undergo two brief separations and reunions from their caregiver as well as contact with a stranger. Main, M., & Solomon, J. In J. Cassidy & P.R. The ultimate causation of some infant attachment phenomena: Further answers, further phenomena, and further questions. Procedures for identifying infants as disorganized/disoriented during the Ainsworth Strange Situation. This page was last edited on 13 November 2020, at 03:53. A Professor at the University of California Berkeley, Main is particularly known for her introduction of the 'disorganized' infant attachment classification and for development of the Adult Attachment Interview and coding system for assessing states of mind regarding attachment. Mary Main would later develop the Adult Attachment Interview, which applied attachment theory to adults, and will be explored later in this article (Main, George, Kaplan 1966). Main, M., Hesse, E., & Goldwyn, R. (2008). The work was completed by her student Mary Main, and Main’s research led to shocking conclusions. Attachment disorganization: Genetic factors, parenting contexts, and developmental transformation from infancy to adulthood. Studying differences in language usage in recounting attachment history: An introduction to the AAI. Mary Main's introduction of the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) has provided the field with an empirical tool for examining the concordance of parental and infant attachment patterns.  Secure-autonomous adult responses were associated with secure infant behavior towards the speaker, dismissing responses with insecure-avoidant infant behavior towards the speaker and preoccupied responses with insecure-ambivalent infant behavior towards the speaker. During her year with Karin and Klaus Grossmann at the Centre for Interdisciplinary Research in 1977, Main interacted with various biologists, evolutionary theorists and ethologists, including Richard Dawkins and Robert Hinde, who influenced her thinking. New books! It developed initially from attachment theory as developed by John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth, and … (1990). Disorganized/disoriented attachment in the etiology of the dissociative disorders, Dissociation, 5(4): 196-204; Main, M., & Morgan, H. (1996). ), Handbook of attachment: Theory, research and clinical applications (2nd ed., pp.552-598). Type A attachments were those that caused the child to be insecure and avoidant. Main, M., & Solomon, J. Attachment in mothers with anxiety disorders and their children, Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 33, 1106 –1113. Goodreads helps you keep track of books you want to read. ), Handbook of attachment: Theory, research and clinical applications (2nd ed., pp.666-697). Main, M., Hesse, E., & Kaplan, N. (2005). , After the initial presentation of protocols for coding D Strange Situation behavior in infants by Main and Solomon, researchers have explored the caregiving behavior associated with the classification. Attachment theory and research: Overview, with suggested applications to child custody. In M. T. Greenberg, D. Cicchetti & E. M. Cummings (Eds. Hazen, N., Sydnye, D.A., Christopher, C., Umemura, T., & Jacobvitz, D. (2015).  AAI transcripts involving definitive examples of such lapses are classified 'unresolved/disorganized'. 31–68). To illustrate the difference, Main has described how an individual who has no living family and no current romantic partner – so a person without a secure attachment in the present to any living persons – could be found to have a secure-autonomous state of mind with respect to attachment.. , Main conceptualised disorganization/disorientation as representing some form of contradiction or disruption of the attachment system: either a conflict between simultaneous dispositions to physically approach and to flee the caregiver, or seeming disorientation to the environment. Mary Sykes Wylie and Lynn Turner When attachment theory was blossoming, it didn’t provide an accompanying toolbox of tactics and techniques, though it did offer a new therapeutic attitude, justifying deep, soul-felt work, which offered a genuinely new beginning … (1999). Other speakers exhibited lapses in discourse, suddenly moving into speech that was excessively detailed, eulogistic in style or that involved prolonged and unacknowledged silences. New this month: Scandal rocks an elite British boarding school in The Divines. Categories of response to reunion with the parent at age 6: Predictable from infant attachment classifications and stable over a one-month period, Developmental Psychology, 24(3), 415–426; Moss, E., Cyr, C., & Dubois-Comtois, K. (2004). We’d love your help. Selected publications are below: A threshold approach to understanding the origins of attachment disorganization, Developmental Psychology, 44(4), 969-982; DeOliveira, C.A., Bailey, H.N., Moran, G., & Pederson, D.R. Infants as disorganized/disoriented during the first child https: //www.verywellmind.com/mary-ainsworth-biography-2795501 the book also examines advances the... 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